Individual Study / PHS-II

Physicians' Health Study II

Physicians' Health Study II

PHS-II logo
Initiatives -
To test four of the most popular and promising agents--vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and a multivitamin--for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease, total cancer, and prostate cancer. To evaluate the effect of these agents on colon polyps and colon cancer, cataract, macular degeneration, and early cognitive decline. **General contact:**
Start Year
End Year
PHS-II is funded by the National Institutes of Health and several industry sponsors.
Visit PHS-II


Investigators Contacts
  • Dr Julie E. Buring
    Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health
  • MD J.Michael Gaziano
    VA CSP Massachusetts Veteran’s Epidemiology Research Center (MAVERIC)


Study design
Clinical trial cohort
Follow Up
Once a year, PHS-II participants get a 12-month supply of study pills in calendar packs. This shipment also contains an annual follow-up questionnaire. It includes questions about compliance with the study treatments, use of non-study medications, occurrence of major illnesses or adverse effects, and other risk factor information.

Marker Paper

Christen WG, Gaziano JM, Hennekens CH. Design of Physicians' Health Study II--a randomized trial of beta-carotene, vitamins E and C, and multivitamins, in prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and eye disease, and review of results of completed trials. Ann Epidemiol. 2000 Feb;10(2):125-34. doi: 10.1016/s1047-2797(99)00042-3.

PUBMED 10691066


Sources of Recruitment
  • Individuals

Number of participants

Number of participants
Number of participants with biosamples
Supplementary Information
male physicians aged 50 years and older who were registered with the American Medical Association and who had not taken part in PHS I.


Availability of data and biosamples