Individual Study / CHOP

European Childhood Obesity Project

European Childhood Obesity Project

CHOP logo
Initiatives -
1. To test the primary hypothesis that a possible causal factor for the difference in long-term obesity risk between breast and formula fed infants is the much lower protein content of breast milk compared to infant formulae. 2. To do this by performing a double blind randomised multicentre intervention trial in healthy infants, comparing isocaloric infant formulae with high and low protein contents, balanced by fat. 3. To validate the primary hypothesis with epidemiological observational studies evaluating the effects of different habitual protein intakes with traditional complementary feeding regimes in infants in the same 5 countries. 4. To evaluate the relationship between different types of infant feeding regimes on a novel, early anthropometric marker, namely the difference between length at two years and length at birth, or later obesity development. 5. To investigate the effects of these infant feeding regimes on body composition, energy expenditure, physical activity, protein metabolism, renal function, leptin and its binding protein and on insulin like growth factor1. 6. To disseminate the results widely to the user communities. 7. To explore effective preventive strategies by modification of the composition and use of dietary products for infants and thus contribute to significant potential health benefits for the European population.
Start Year
End Year
Partially supported by: the Commission of the European Community, specific RTD Programme ‘Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources’ within the 5th Framework Programme (research grant nos. QLRT-2001–00389 and QLK1-CT-2002–30582); the 6th Framework Programme (contract no. 007036); the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme(FP7/2007–2013), project EarlyNutrition under grant agreement no. 289346; and the European Research Council Advanced grant ERC-2012-AdG – no.322605 META-GROWTH.
Supplementary Information
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Investigators Contacts
  • Dr. Prof. Berthold Koletzko
    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich
  • Dr. Hans Demmelmair
    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich


Study design
Clinical trial cohort
Follow Up
Follow-up until age 8 years by three-day estimated and weighed food diaries were completed by the child’s parent or caregiver at theages of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 8 years.

Marker Paper

Marsh, K., Möller, J., Basarir, H., Orfanos, P., & Detzel, P. (2016). The Economic Impact of Lower Protein Infant Formula for the Children of Overweight and Obese Mothers. Nutrients, 8(1), 18.

PUBMED 19386747


Sources of Recruitment
  • Families
  • Other : Pregnant women and their newborns.

Number of participants

Number of participants
Number of participants with biosamples
Supplementary Information
1678 mothers


Availability of data and biosamples